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首页 > 祈福英语实验学校 > 新闻动态 > 【祈福英语实验学校(中学)】中美班环境科学课堆肥实验
【祈福英语实验学校(中学)】中美班环境科学课堆肥实验

When studying environmental science, students need to know more aboutnutrient cycles, soils, the dynamic of soils, and the interactions between soils,plants, and ecosystems. Environmental scientists need to look at different ways to determine whether the nutrients of soils aresufficient for optimum plant growth. Using the knowledge of soils and the chemical properties of different soils, scientist can predict how the plants and ecosystems will react with these substances.

研究环境科学时,学生需了解有关养分循环、土壤和土壤动力学,以及土壤、植物和生态系统之间的相互作用。环境科学家需从不同方面着手分析土壤养分是否达到植物的最佳生长条件。利用土壤知识和不同土壤的化学特性,科学家可以预知植物和生态系统如何与不同土壤产生反应。

The goal of the composting experiment was to learn how to make compost, and to test and evaluate different ways to make compost.Before the Chinese-American High School Environmental Science (Grade 11) students started the experiment, they had to learn the theoretical knowledge of the nutrient cycle and different methods of composting.

堆肥实验目的在于学习如何制作堆肥、如何测试和评估堆肥的不同方式。在11年级中美班环境实验课上,学生们开始了此项实验,从实验中学习养分循环的理论知识和不同的堆肥方法。


What is composting?

              什么是堆肥?

It is the natural process ofrecycling organic matter, such as leaves, grass cuttings and food scraps, intoa valuable fertilizer that can enrich soil and plants. Referred to by farmers and gardeners as“black gold,” compost is rich in nutrients andcan be used for gardening, horticulture, agriculture and organic farming.Accordingto Wikipedia: “Compost is made by decomposing organicmaterials into simpler organic and inorganic compounds in a process calledcomposting. This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products.Good compost is rich in plantnutrients and beneficial organisms.”

堆肥是有机物质循环的自然过程,如树叶、草或厨余垃圾经过自然循环后,成为有价值的肥料,让土壤变得肥沃,给予植物生长时所需营养。堆肥被农民和园丁誉为“黑金”,堆肥后的土壤养分充足,可用于园林、园艺、农业和有机耕作。维基百科这样解释堆肥:“将有机材料分解成更简单的有机和无机化合物的过程称为‘堆肥’。由有机材料组成的废料通过堆肥过程得以变废为宝、循环再用。高品质的堆肥富含植物养分和益生菌。”


What are the benefits of compost?

              堆肥有哪些好处?

It provides nutrients as fertilizer to crops, increasing thehumus content of the soil, and introducing beneficial colonies of microbes in the soil, which help in overpoweringharmful pathogens. Other benefits of compost are: improving natural interactions of the soil, plant roots and nutrient / microorganisms, andimprove the soil structure.Therefore, an improved soil structure will increase the soil water holding ability and control soil erosion. Additional uses of compost are: it can be used for land and stream reclamation, wetland construction, and landfill cover.

堆肥为庄稼提供养分,土壤中的腐殖质含量因而得以增加,有益的微生物菌落也因堆肥而产生,微生物菌落能有效帮助植物战胜病菌。堆肥还有以下好处:改善土壤、植物根系和养分/微生物在自然条件下的相互作用;改善土壤构造。经改良的土壤构造可以提高土壤持水能力,减少水土流失。堆肥还可用于土地和河流回填、湿地建设和垃圾填埋。


How to make compost and how long does it take to make it?

             堆肥制作方法及制作时长

Composting requires collecting a combination of “greens” and“browns”. “Greens” are materials rich in nitrogen such as leaves, grass, and food scraps (e.g. banana peels, eggshells and other vegetable peals).“Browns” are more woody materials rich in carbon-like stems, paper, and wood chips. The materials are saturatedwith water to break them down into humus, a process that occurs over a period of a few weeks to several months.The composting process takes at least two months, however, it can also take place as a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is assisted by shredding the plant matter, adding water, and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture.Fungi, earthworms and other detritivores further break up the organic material. Aerobic bacteria and fungi manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide, and ammonium.制作堆肥第一步是收集“绿色”原料和“棕色”原料。树叶、草,以及香蕉皮、鸡蛋壳和烂菜叶等厨余垃圾都是很好的“绿色”原料,富含氮元素。“棕色”原料则偏向富含碳的木质材料,如树茎、纸张和木屑。第二步是用水浸透两类原料,目的在于将其分解成腐殖质,这一过程需要几周到几个月不等的时间。一般来说,堆肥过程至少需要两个月,但它也可以是一个多步骤的过程,可以通过测量水、空气、碳和氮等的摄入量对堆肥过程进行密切监测。为加快堆肥过程,我们将原料作粉碎处理,加入水,定期翻动堆肥混合物,确保肥料充分通风;还可以加入真菌、蚯蚓和其他能加速原料腐蚀的生物,进一步破坏有机物结构,加速原料分解。好氧菌和真菌掌管着堆肥的化学变化过程,两类菌群把各种材料转化为热能、二氧化碳和氨盐,最终实现堆肥。


The students’ composting experiment involved the following experimental design:

Experimental group 1 – “greens” and “browns” with the presence of earthwormsExperimental group 2 – fine or shredded “greens” and “browns” with additional aeration by turning the mixture.

Control group – “greens” and “browns” with No presence of earthworms and No aeration by turning the mixture.

学生们开展的堆肥制作实验设计如下:实验组1:在“绿色”原料和“棕色”原料混合物中添加蚯蚓。实验组2:将“绿色”原料和“棕色”原料混合物粉碎成细小的颗粒,定期翻动混合物达到充分通风的目的。

控制组:纯粹是“绿色”原料和“棕色”原料混合物,不添加蚯蚓,不做混合物翻动的操作。


After the experiment was done, students had to visually compare and evaluate the results of the three different approaches of making compost.The final research report had to be handed in for the students’ final practical mark.

实验结束时,学生将从视觉上对比和评估用这三种不同方法制作的堆肥有何不同,并就此研究项目提交研究报告,外教会给研究报告打分。 


The effectiveness of the three different compost mediums will be evaluated in the next phase of the experiment, by adding them to different pot plants for testing growth and making compost tea for increasing the nutrient concentration of the hydroponic system.

在实验下一阶段,我们会把这三种堆肥分配到不同的花盆里来对比植物的生长状况,还会制作堆肥茶来增加水培系统的营养浓度。如此,这三种不同堆肥培养基的有效性将得以评估。





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